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SM078a

Written by H Boscow.

TO
ALL THE TEACHERS AND SCHOLARS AND CHURCH MEMBERS OF ST. MARKS
and to
Linda Anne Hamer (of Class I)
THIS STORY OF ST. MARKS IS DEDICATED

THE MANAGERS, 1861

The Vicar of Holy Trinity, Rev. Joseph Lowe,
The Curate and five other people: Mr George Piggot, Dr Roger Hampson, Mr John Bayley,
Mr John K Cross, Mr Thomas Hall Arrowsmith

THE MANAGERS, 1961

Rev. Cyril A Winters, A.L.C.D., Chairman and Correspondent.
Mr J Nuttall, Mr W Wolstenholme, Miss Nora Kenyon,
Councilor J Baron and Councilor J Crompton.
Chief Education Officer Bolton, W T Selley, M.A. B.Sc, M.Ed

THE SCHOOL STAFF, 1861

Boys School: Master Mr John H Norris, assisted by two pupil teachers, Edward Triffitt in his second year and Edment Thorne in his first year
Girls School: Mistress, Mrs Elizabeth Bentley, assisted by Miss E Beswick, a pupil teacher in her third year, and Miss Elizabeth Booth, a pupil teacher in her first year
Infants School: Mistress, Mrs Rachael Norris, assisted by Miss Mary Seddon, a pupil teacher in her second year, and Miss Martha Shippobottom, a pupil teacher in her first year

STAFF, 1961

Mr H Boscow, F.R.G.S., Headmaster.
Mrs E Entwistle, Deputy Headmistress.
Miss M Crawshaw, Miss M Booth, Miss B Jones, Mr J Mundy, Mrs B Johnson,
Miss Barbara Clarke and Miss Anita Hardcastle
Nursery Trainees
Mr H Griffiths, Caretaker
Part-time Ancillary Staff: Mrs Collier, Clerk. Mrs Isherwood, Cleaner.
Mrs Horridge and Mrs Turner, School Meal Supervisors:
and
Mrs Philbin, Mrs Rushton, Mrs Raby and Mrs Manning,
School Meal kitchen servers.

INCUMBENTS

The Vicars of St. Mark's who have all been Chairman of the Managers of the school, and most keen workers in its upkeep, support and direction throughout these hundred years:

Rev Canon J. G. Doman, M.A. 1866-1900
Rev. Edwin Wolfe, B.A.  1900-1912
Rev. Henry Richard Tomlinson, M.A. 1912-1917
Rev. H. A. Coleman, M.A. 1917-1921
Rev. H. G. Moss, M.A. 1921-1937
Rev. J. S. Leatherbarrow, M.A. 1937-1944
Rev. J. Hadfield, M.A. 1944-1951
Rev E. Chapman, B.A. 1951-1958

HEAD TEACHERS

Boys School

Mr J Norris
1861-1866
Mr W Webster
1866-1892
Mr Jabez Darricotte
1892-1903
Mr Frank Smith
1903-1911
Mr T Smith
1911-1938
Mr H Brickles
1938-1958
Mr H Boscow
1958-

Girls School

Mrs E Bentley
1861-1866
Miss E Pye
1866-1867
Miss E Carter
1867-1870
Miss E Beswick
1870-1878
Miss Sarah Catherine Hindley
1878-1882
Miss B Fellows
1882-1892
Miss Duckworth
1892
The Girls School is now
amalgamated with the
Boys School

Infants School

Mrs R Norris
1861-1866
Miss E Millington
1866-1869
Miss M Smith
1869-1872
Miss E Marewell
1872-1873
Miss S Greaves
1873-1887
Miss M Holmes
1887-1893
Miss Field
1893-1894
Miss Leatham
1894-1914
Miss E Taylor
1914-1925
Miss C Howarth
1925-1935
The Infants School is now
joined to the Mixed School
In 1952 the school lost the children over the age of eleven and it became a Junior and Mixed Infants School - A Voluntary Aided Primary School.

ST. MARKS SCHOOL

INTRODUCTION

This year, 1961, marks the centenary of St. Marks Church of England Day School. Like most schools of those days one hundred years ago they were established through the foresight of men of sound church ideals and principles. Then the education of the mass of the people was in the hands of voluntary bodies connected with the various religious denominations, and the Church of England was in the forefront of this movement to provide schools. The State as such, had no direct responsibility for education. Although the crying need for more schools had often exercised the minds on many Members of Parliament, and the subject had often been debated in the House. The only outcome that had been achieved up to date was an annual payment by the Government to the various voluntary bodies.

The rising national anxiety about the education of the great mass of the people was consequent upon the large increase in the population there had been during the last few years, especially in the many new towns of the industrial regions, following upon the Industrial Revolution of the early 1800s. Many people were over-worked in the new factories, poorly housed in hastily thrown up rows of cottage dwellings, so that there was a crying need for social reforms, better working conditions, and more knowledge of how to live when these better conditions had been achieved. Along with this bursting new life in the country was a quickly growing awareness of a larger world outside Europe. In this year 1861 Burke was finding the source of the White Nile, Livingstone was beginning his famous explorations of the Dark Continent. Darwin had just published his famous book "The Origin of Species." Trade was expanding, and rapidly finding new markets in the many new lands overseas. The railways were expanding their networks all over the country, and towns like Bolton were bursting at the seams and spreading outwards over the fields surrounding the ancient central nucleus of the borough. The vast majority of the workers of the town were employed in the textile mills; even children of eight and over worked half time for eight hours a day and could become full time workers at thirteen. 1861 was the middle of the Victorian Era; ten years ago had been held the Great Exhibition in the Crystal Palace to show off the new wealth of the nation, Now the good Prince Albert was a dying man. The American Civil War had started. It was an age of wealth on the one hand contrasted by dire poverty on the other. Philanthropically minded people were active in setting up many and various agencies for the alleviation of the distress of the poor, yet at the same time those same poor were expected to know their station in life to which they had been called

Into these conditions of the nation then, exemplified in a smaller way in Bolton, St. Mark's School was started. For the first five years of its existence it wasn't St. Mark's School at all, for there was no St. Mark's parish; that was not created until 1866. The whole district was part of the Parish of Holy Trinity and the school was known as Lever Street Schools, the first five Inspector's reports being addressed to the Vicar of Holy Trinity. It is to the efforts of this gentleman, the Rev. Joseph Lowe, that the school was established; he had the very generous help and support of a number of other gentlemen, members of his congregation. The area around Lever Street was, about this time, still largely open fields, but they were ripe for development as sites for more mills, and houses for their workers. The present school building was opened in 1861, but a Sunday School had been started three years before in three cottages in Lever Street. We cannot do better than quote from the report printed in the Bolton Chronicle of August 10th, 1861, of the opening of the school Buildings by the Lord Bishop of manchester at a tea party at which 300 people were present on August 8th; "Almost immediately after his succession to the incumbency of Holy Trinity, the attention of the Rev. Joseph Lowe was forced to the condition of the particular corner of his large district in which the present handsome structure is situated. Inhabited solely by hardworking factory hands whose numbers were daily augmenting as the manufacturing interest extended itself, street after street of cottages were reared in rapid succession, but no corresponding facilities were given for the instruction of the population. The children, then released from their portion of daily toil, were seen to be roaming the bye-lanes or waste lands, growing in ignorance, acquiring habits of vice by the mere force of contact and example, and laying such foundations of ill that there appears little hope for the future other than in accordance with melancholy present. To alleviate, in some measure, so fearful a state of things, the incumbent of Holy Trinity cast about him for assistance, and with the help of Mr Richard Morris, Mr Thomas Rogerson, Mr James Booth, Mr F Dutton, Mr Squire Openshaw, Mr R Harrison, Mr James Bentley, Mr Richard Seddon, Mr Thomas Hall Arrowsmith, Dr Scowcroft, Mr Alderman Finney and Mr J B Knight they started the Sunday School in the cottage in Lever Street."

The project prospered and two more cottages were added to the first. Then the Rev. Joseph Love found himself bound to attempt greater things. Mr George Piggot purchased the land for the building of a proper school. He brought it to the notice of the Earl of Bradford, who gave £200 towards the £3.255 the building would cost. So the present school building in Fletcher Street came to be built. It was designed by a Bolton Architect, Mr C Holt, and consisted of two rooms for boys' and girls schools, each 102ft by 20ft.and an infants room 60ft by 20ft and a masters house. Into this new building then the Sunday School was transferred, a day school started, and services held whenever necessary. Mr Lowe put the district in charge of one of his curates, the Rev. George Doman, who subsequently became the first Vicar of the newly formed parish of St. Marks in 1866.

1. - 1861 - 1866

The School buildings were erected on the land given to the Minister and Churchwardens of the Holy Trinity Church by Mr G Piggot in 1860. In the deed of gift it is stated that the land was to be used "for a school for the education of children and adults or children only of the labouring, manufacturing, and other poor classes in the said district parish, and for no other purpose."

The deed also states that the Sunday School shall be open to inspection by the inspectors of the schools appointed in the conformity with the Order in Council of 1840, and shall be in union with, and conducted, according to the principles of the National Society for promoting the education of the poor in the principles of the Established Church.

The building was opened, as already stated, in August, 1861. We presume that the Day School started almost at once. The exact date is lost, for the earliest Log Books we have, all start in 1863, but the first Inspectors report dated August 13th, 1862 is as follows:

Boys. This School has been opened eight months only. Reasonable progress has been made.

Girls. The amount of progress in the new School has been satisfactory.

Infants. A fair start has been made."

As the inspection would be made some time before the report was issued, it would be reasonable to assume that the School started very soon after the building was opened.

The school was organised in three separate departments- Boys, girls, infants. Each department had one adult teacher, assisted by two pupil teachers. Pupil teacher was the only way to enter the profession in these early years. The pupil teachers were themselves only children, either from the school itself or from others. They started at the age of thirteen and were apprenticed to the School Master and Mistress for five or six years. They taught the classes, and had themselves to come to school at 8 a.m. each day for lessons from the master. They had to sit an annual examination, and present a certificate from the Managers of good conduct and attention to their duties. At the end of their apprenticeship they sat the Queen's Scholarship, after which, if they passed, they became certified teachers. Those who passed high enough secured an entry to a Training College and so became Trained Certified Teachers. So the the teachers in charge of each department had to work the school with the help of these very young people. we give quotations from the Boys School Log Books, which throw light on this system:

August 7th, 1863: "Numbers steadily increasing. The master takes the upper classes. Thorn takes class 3, and Triffitt class 4."

August 14th: "Monthly examination, Class 4. Lamentably deficient in adding numbers. Defects pointed out to the teacher."

September 23rd: "Triffitt repeats his lessons (his own at 8 a.m.) imperfectly and is threatened with a note to his parents."

April 19th, 1865: "The master notices that the writing in Class 3 is carelessly done. The teachers attention is drawn to it. Numbers rather low, absentees sent for. Charles Turner sent home for his school money this morning."

August 21st: "James ... plays truant and spends his school money, is brought to school in the afternoon by his brother and punished."

February 16th, 1866: "Weather very cold, classes sit round the fire."

February 26th: 1866: "Thorn gives a good Scripture lesson to the lower standards."

May 3rd: "The Rev. Lowe remarks in the afternoon that the inefficiency of your pupil teachers has been a great drawback upon your school.

June 14th: "Discipline is poor in one or two classes and the cause, I Think, is to be found in the want of a strict and conscientious discharge of duty on the part of one of the teachers, in whom I have lately noticed a great lack of interest in his work, and a playfulness of mood ill-becoming one who has work so important to do."

June 1st: "Thorn has charge of the first class, Triffitt the second, and the master takes general supervision."

October 15th: "Several boys left, chiefly factory boys who, going to work in other mills, have to attend a different school. Triffitt caught reading a penny dreadful instead of hearing his class read."

November 6th, 1866: The new master, Mr Webster, appointed in July took charge of the school. The new parish of St. Marks had recently been created with the Rev. G Doman as Vicar, and one of his first duties was to appoint a new Master.

Mr Webster's first entry in the Log Book is: "Found the boys very unruly and extremely dirty. Gave an address to them on punctuality, regular attendance, good behaviour and cleanliness."

On November 13th he writes: "Triffitt stayed away at home ill, went on quite as well without him as with him. He is not much good."

November 19th: Thomas Morris began teaching a little today, as he intends to be a candidate for pupil teacher."

November 21st: "Thorn worked hard today. Triffitt still away ill."

December 20th: "Triffitt has finished his apprenticeship today. He does not intend to follow the profession of school master."

March 29th: "The master gave the higher classes to the pupil teachers and took the lower classes himself. Thomas Winward being sent in the classroom to stay after school, went home through the window."

April 29th: "The master was at school from 6.45 a.m. till 7.55 a.m. waiting for pupil teachers to have their lesson. No one came. On enquiry at 9.0 o'clock they said they were not sure whether there was any or not. A paltry excuse.

January 21st, 1868: "Thorn heard this morning that he had obtained a first class Scholarship at the recent examination for teachers entering Training College. He went to St. Johns College, London."

One of the first things that Mr Webster did was to persuade the Managers to appoint a certified assistant master to help him. but he was not very lucky with his first choice as witness these entries:-

January 6th, 1868: Mr Thornley commenced duties as assistant master." But on February 17th Mr Webster writes: "The master went to Ince this afternoon to make enquiries about Mr Thornley." And on the 21st he writes: "Mr Thornley's duties finished this evening."

1866 - 1902

During these years Elementary Schools all over the country were run on what we now term the "Payment by results" system, and St. Marks School was no exception to this. In fact, it shows this system very well, because we have every Inspectors' Report from 1862.

Prior to 1862 the masters salary of any school was paid directly to him from the Committee of the Privy Council for Education in London. Grants were also paid to the Managers of Schools for their upkeep as well. There was much freedom in the choice of subjects taught, and much progress had been made since schools first began to be established in the 1830s.

But in 1862, as a result of a national enquiry known as the Newcastle Commission, the Committee of the Privy Council issued what became known as the Revised Code whereby all moneys would be paid direct to the Managers, who, out of it, would pay the teachers and the running expenses of the school.

The amount of money to be paid was to be on the result of an annual examination, and attendance. The Inspectors would visit each school each year and examine the children under twelve in Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic if they had put in the required number of attendances. Each child if successful could earn for the school 12s. - 4s. on attendance and 2s 8d. for each subject he passed in. Children under six were exempt, and above that age six standards were laid down, with a prescribed amount of knowledge to be learnt in each. If the school earned good grants the teachers salary might go up. If not it would probably go down. The teachers therefore made sure of the best possible grants by constantly drilling in the prescribed work, and that only, so that general educational advance was held up for years. This system went on with modifications, e.g., the introduction of optional subjects as well as the three R's, until 1900.

So in the Log Books of our School as the time of the annual inspection approached in March each year we constantly get entries like these:-

"Master examined ST1 and ST2 and found them not up to standard."

"Working up for the examination."

"Preparatory to the examination, Mr Doman wrote to the mill managers for permission for the half timers to have time off work to sit the examination."

For 1862 and 63 the Inspectors reports are on the old system, just a verbal report, but in 1864 and afterwards, in addition to the verbal report, there is also given the results of the examination and the amounts of grant earned. That for 1864 is as follows:

Boys: This school is improving. The attainments are not as high as they should be. The writing and arithmetic in the first standards requires much attention. The order is good.
Average Attendance 127. Number presented for examination 94. Passed in Reading 91, in Writing 84, in Arithmetic 92

Girls: The children in this school have improved. The school appears to be doing much good in the district.
Average Attendance 100. Number presented for examination 82 . Passed in Reading 80, in Writing 79, in Arithmetic 71.

Infants: This school is trained and instructed with much care, and good results have attended he examination.
Average Attendance 122. Presented for examination 17. Passed in Reading 17, Writing 14, in Arithmetic 14.

The boys earned £19/1/0 on attendance and £26/14/0 on examination, the girls earned £15 on attendance and £23/6/0 on examination, and the infants earned £18/6/0 on average attendance, £4/16/0 on examination, and £18/5/8 for children under six, making a total grant of £125/8/8 paid to the Managers.

As the years go by we see the amount earned steadily upwards because (1) there are more children in the school, (2) more of them are passing, and (3) the grants paid for each subject are increased. In 1887 grants are also being earned by pupils attending an evening school, 26 males and 20 females earning £18.

Deductions could also be made for poor standards of work, as witness this report on the Girls School in 1870:

Girls: The school is in very good order, but the attainments as a whole are scarcely if at all better than last year. My Lords have ordered a deduction of one-tenth from the grant to the Girls School on account of the defective instruction in Arithmetic which is again noticed in the Inspectors Report.

Scholars who attend both the day and evening schools cannot bring grants to both schools.

166 boys, 65 girls, 157 infants earned 4/- a head on average attendance, and 36 night school scholars earned 2/6 a head. In the three subjects the boys had a total of 451 passes, the girls 102, and the infants 105. All these passes brought in 2/8 a head, whilst the evening school had 105 passes brought at 1/8 a head. £30/14/6 was paid for children under six at 6/6 a head.

The Boys' total grants was £94/7/8.

The Girls' total grants was £26/18/6, less than one-tenth.

The Infants' total grant was 71/19/8.

The Evening School grant was £13/5/0. A total of £201/3/2. It would seem that the Girls School was going through a rough patch.

In 1872 the Inspector reports that both the boys and the girls schools are painfully dark, and that low desks would be a boon to the infants.

In 1880 the schools earned £609, in 1890 £654. In this year 241 boys, 275 girls, and 153 infants were presented for the examination; 241 boys and 273 girls passed in reading, 229 boys and 264 girls passed in writing, and 213 boys and 266 girls passed in arithmetic. By now Geography, Recitation and Needlework were optional subjects that were being offered. Singing was also offered, and the Log Books record the list of songs and recitations that would be done that year.

For example, in 1889 the girls of ST1 sang (1) "Come, rouse up, ye slothful," (2) "When the soft winds blow," (3) "I was hung in my place," (4) "Away, away, the track is all white," (5) "The sails are all swelling," and recited "Lucy Grey," "the wreck of the Hesperus," and "The deserted village."

In the infant school this year the first class had the following

Object lessons: A tree, a flower (a poppy to be made in this lesson), a leaf, paper, wire, wood, matches, milk, butter, flour, bread, winter, coal, gas, silk, and a park. They also had lessons on the lion, dog, fox, wolf, frog, parrot, butterfly and ostrich, and they recited "Cock-a-doodle-do" and "They're all cut down for one.'

It would appear that the same songs and recitations were done often year by year. They must have known them by the time they reached the sixth standard! Books of Object Lessons were published where in the method of taking the lesson was laid down in detail, even to the questions to be asked. We have one such book called "Object Lessons in Geography," 1899.
In it there is a lesson on "Lake, Sea and Ocean." It starts by asking the teacher to recapitulate a previous lesson on The Puddle. The following definition had to be learnt: " A Puddle is a small portion of fresh, still water with land all round it." The teacher is then instructed to make a model of a pond in the sand tray. The class is to observe that the Pond has land all round it. It is still fresh water. It has no outlets. It drains the land." Then comes another definition: A Pond is a very large puddle." The teacher is then instructed to enlarge the pond to a lake, then to a sea, then to an ocean. In other Geography lessons they learnt the names of all the rivers, capes and bays round the map of England. Lessons without inspiration, imagination and life, just drill in the facts, to be repeated parrot fashion to the inspector on the appointed day.

It was in this period, in 1870, that a new Education Act was passed. This created the School Boards, which were elected annually like town councilor's. The School Board had the power to levy a rate to build schools. These new schools affected many Church Schools, but St. Marks was not affected until 1886, when we read in the Log Book for June 28th: "Clarendon Board School was opened for the first time this morning. Several boys left to go there."

Up to 1874 children could work in the mills half time at eight, and full time at thirteen. In that year the half time age was raised to ten and the full time age to fourteen. Many of the children of St. Marks were half timers.

Each year, too, the Diocesan Inspector came to examine the religious teaching in the School. The Log Books are full of references to the visits made to the School by the first Vicar of the parish, Rev G Doman. He acted as Secretary from 1867 to 1886, when Alderman Finney took over until 1897, when Mr J B Knight became Secretary. All these early report forms from London are hand written.

It would appear that the Rev G Doman had himself acted as sole manager, for in the Parish Magazine of December, 1886, there is a report of a School Prize distribution, when 94 boys and 74 girls received prizes for full attendance. The Vicar said that they were contemplating extensions to the School, and as some friends and co-workers had joined in the risk and responsibility of the work, he was going to ask of them to join him as the first body of managers (really the second, for when the School was under Trinity a body of managers is named in the deed of gift of the land). He reports that there were 280 boys, 350 girls and 211 infants, a total of 841 pupils in the School, and that of every 100 boys and girls presented for the examination, 95 boys and 92 girls passed; this was good considering that 150 were half timers.

The new body of managers entered upon their duties on March 1st, 1887, their first duty being the selection of a new headmistress to the infants school from 150 applicants. The extensions to the School were started on March 21st. In these early years when we mention classes it must not be thought that each class had its own room. There were just the three large rooms, one for the boys, one for the girls and one for the infants; all the children in each school were in the one room, the classes just sitting at separate desks. The new classrooms were completed by 1889. This work now forms the two side classrooms off the hall. One other extension must have been made later, for a handbook of a Bazaar held in 1893 to pay off debts on the school and church speaks of "Our school building has twice been extended by the erection of large and convenient classrooms." This second extension would be the classroom off the small hall.

In 1892 Mr Webster, the head of the boys school, retired after twenty seven years service, and also the head of the girls school, Miss Fellows. A Miss Duckworth appears in the Log Book as in charge of the girls school for a few months, but then the boys and the girls are joined together as a mixed school under the new Headmaster, Mr Jabez Darricotte. One of his first Log Book entries is as follows: "A great deal of disorder is caused daily when dismissing school owing to there being no cloakroom accommodation." He also reports; "This morning I found in St. 4 girls register several mistakes had been made by the teacher during the past fortnight. I pointed out to her the seriousness of such mistakes."

The Scripture report for 1893 reads as follows: This is a laborious half time school, and much good work is being done in it." Here are further interesting entries from the Log Book:-

"Mr Owen left after a fortnight's notice, he having been appointed head of a school near Caernarvon."

"Criticism lesson given by the Pupil Teacher to St. 4 girls. Made temporary alteration in timetable of Pupil Teachers own lessons, viz., taken from 1 to 2 p.m. instead of from 7.45 to 8.45 a.m."

"Gave model lesson on the Ostrich for third year pupil teacher."

"Criticism lesson given by pupil teacher on Native African Tribes."

February 18th, 1895: " Commenced giving free dinners to the poorer children."

March 19th, 1897: "During the past week we have inaugurated a branch of the Children's National Guild of Courtesy in School; 550 members have joined.

June 6th, 1902: "318 scholars out of 619 have attended every time school was open this quarter since we started the Never Absent Photograph Scheme in 1895. This scheme has kept its popularity and improved the attendance more than any other system I Know."

1902 - 1944

In 1899 Parliament passed the Board of Education Act, which set up the Board of Education (now the Ministry of Education) and then in 1902 they passed a new Education Act which made the County or Borough Councils the local Education Authority with powers to control Elementary Education and also to start Grammar Schools. The Council acted through its Education Committee. They were to have control of all secular education in all schools, and to maintain all elementary schools, both council and church. one of the first things that the Bolton Authority did was to appoint a responsible officer as Education Officer, and a supervisor of Primary Schools. The person appointed for this last post was Mr Darricotte the headmaster of this school. The Vicar gave the children a holiday in honour of the appointment.

Thus there began a partnership between the Local Authority through its Education Committee and its officers and the Church. The Authority took over the running of the school along with those of the School Board, but the Church still retained control over the religious teaching and the building. We must record here the generous support and help of the Authority in the full development of the education given in the school ever since.

During this period the schools gradually moved away from the restrictive ways of the old "Payment by Results" system. Further subjects could be introduced into the curriculum, History, Geography, Art, Handwork, Woodwork, Cookery, Physical Training, and of course a more enlightened approach could be given to all subjects. The Annual Examination Inspection gave way to periodic inspections, and we also see the first children entering the old established and the new town Grammar Schools.

On April 1st, 1903, the new Headmaster, Mr Frank Smith, took over and !the Vicar came into the school and addressed a few words to the children on the position of the School with regard to the Local Education Authority under whose control we pass today."

April 6th: "Forwarded the first requisition sheet to the office." on May 26th, the H.M.I visited the school and wrote in the Log Book: "There are 99 present in the St.5 in charge of one adult teacher." On July 3rd, we read: "F Darricotte, son of the previous head, and R Dunlop attending examination for scholarships at the Bolton Grammar School. The headmaster has devoted almost all his time to the five candidates for the Council scholarships during this week." Later, he reports the results as follows: "of the fifty Council scholarships offered, Robert Dunlop was placed 5th, Annie Kenyon 6th, Elizabeth Lewis 7th, and Violet Calverley 15th. Frank Darricotte occupied 1st place but took a scholarship at the Church institute (Canon Slade) instead."

On December 16th we have the first record of a fire drill in the school. In May we read of the first pupils going for swimming lessons. In 1906-7 St Marks Staff of the mixed department consisted of the Headmaster, seven certified assistants, three uncertified assistants, one supplementary teacher and four pupil teachers.

In 1907 we see that R Dunlop, the above scholarship winner in 1903 returns to the school as a pupil teacher. This year, too, the school swimming team won the Haslam shield.

In 1908 the boys football team won the Stanley shield for the fifth time, and the third time in succession. They were, of course, to win it many more times as well.

1909 Empire Day was celebrated, they sang patriotic songs and saluted the flag. In April, 1911, Mr Smith resigned on his appointment to the Headship of Gaskell Street Council School. Mr T Smith was appointed in his place.

In April, 1914, Mr A Rushworth retired on a break-down pension after thirty eight years teaching in the school. On the 6th of August, Mr W Grisedale, a teacher, was ordered to join his regiment in London by the first possible train. The girls started making comforts for the troops.

In August, 1915, Miss Nora Kenyon started as a student teacher in the infants School. Also in February of this year, Mr Smith, the Headmaster, was granted three months leave of absence to take up duties as Sgt Instructor with the 10th Batt South Wales Borderers.

The Log Book records in 1916 another pupil gaining a Bolton School Scholarship value £60, namely Harry Peers, and in the next year the head proudly writes in the Log Book: "A Municipal Secondary Scholarship won by Sidney Monks of this school at the early age of 10 years."

On November 12th, 1918, the school had a holiday for Armistice. There are now nine classes and teachers in the mixed school. In June of 1919 the Head writes: "Seven of the senior boys and girls were sent to Hall i' th' Wood Museum unaccompanied, to stimulate their powers of observation." Also in June, Gerald Smith was awarded a Foundation Scholarship at Bolton School at the age of nine. In 1924 he took senior honours at Cambridge.

In September, 1920, we have the first reference to a student from a Training College doing a fortnight's training in the school.

The next year sees Miss Nora Kenyon appointed as a trained certified assistant in the Infant's School.

On the 31st of July, 1922, Miss Mary A Richardson retired after spending 40 years in this school as pupil teacher and assistant mistress. In 1927 Mr Harold S. D. Bonser Head of St Thomas's Halliwell, started teaching in the school.

In this year too, the interior of the school building was remodeled. The Bolton Evening News, reporting the reopening of by the Bishop of Hulme, Dr J C Hill, on September 19th, says: "The school building had been condemned by the Board of Education in 1924. There was not enough light or ventilation. It Lacked corridors, so that is was necessary to pass through one classroom to get to another, and was without cloakrooms. The managers were advised by the Board that it would not be wise to spend any amount of money effecting improvements because there did not seem to be any chance of bringing the building up to the required standard. But the Managers, under the Rev. H G Moss, went to work, enlisted the support of the Local Authority, and called in an Architect, who succeeded in working out a plan which secured the approval of Whitehall. Then, with splendid faith that the money would be forthcoming, they went forward with then plan. The alterations cost £3,000."

On the last day of July, 1928, Mr John William McCann retired after thirty four and a half years' work in the school. Mr Brickles, my predecessor as Headmaster, was appointed as assistant master in his place.

From the 1st of August, 1935, when Miss Howarth, the Headmistress of the Infant's school, left to get married the school became a mixed and infant's school under the Headmaster, with children from five to fourteen, on the 6th of January, 1936, Miss Doris Booth (Mrs Scrogg) was appointed as mistress in charge of the infants. She later, under the 1944 Education act, Became Deputy Headmistress and retired in 1960.

On the 1st June, 1938, Mr T Smith retired. The following copy of a resolution passed by the Managers is written in the Log Book: "That the Managers convey to Mr Smith, upon his retirement after 27 years as Headmaster of the school, their deep sense of gratitude for his unswerving loyalty to the cause of education, and the splendid results attained by the school during his term of Headmastership. They trust he will be long spared to appreciate fully the advantages accruing from his retirement, which by reason of his adoption of the principle of placing his duty to the children first he has indubitably earned." Mr Smith died this year, 1961.

Mr H Brickles was appointed by the Managers to succeed Mr Smith. it was he who steered the school through the war years, and the change over from an all age school with children of from five to fourteen to a primary school under the 1944 Act.

In 1938, soon after he took over, a new nursery class for under five children was opened. In September, 1939, the school did not reopen after the Summer holiday owing to the outbreak of war until shelter accommodation had been provided. By October enough shelters had been provided for half the children, so half came in the mornings and half in the afternoons. Later still, when the shelter in the yard had been built, full time was resumed.

In January 1940 the heavy snowfall caused the attendance to fall greatly for nearly a week; only 120 out of 200 in the mixed department came to school, and a number of St Marks Staff either could not get or arrived late.

In July the school closed early each day for over a week whilst St Marks Staff were out in the area making a survey for billeting purposes. Then in October, on the 12th, the air raid children proceeded to the basement shelters and stayed there until the all clear at 11.30. On the 21st there were three warnings in the day, each lasting over half an hour, each time the school had to make its way into the shelters. So it went on during these early was years. Added to the constant interruptions by the sirens were staff shortages, shortages of materials and equipment, and warnings in the night so that staff and children came tired to school. During the long holiday of 1942 the school remained open so that children who wished could come to shelter. Two teachers came each day to supervise. School dinners were started. The school was also ready at any time to act as a rest centre in case of severe bombing, and for this purpose stocks of food and bedding were held in the building under the head's charge. In spite of all these difficulties the normal work of the school progressed as well as was possible. In 1943 three children passed scholarships, Derek Birch to the Church Institute. School was closed for two day, the 8th and 9th of August, 1945, for celebrating the end of the war in Europe.

1944 - 1961

The Education Act passed during the latter years of the war created Secondary Schooling - Grammar, Technical and Modern. All children of 11 years would, therefore, have to sit some form of selection test in order to try and find which school would be most suitable for them. The full effects were not felt straight away, because first there was a war to be won, and secondly to implement the Act fully, much reorganisation and new building would be necessary. The school leaving age was by this act raised to fifteen. An extra classroom had to be built, and at the same time a dining centre was built on the same land on the other side of the church.

At the beginning of the new school year in September, 1946, free milk in schools commenced for all children desiring it.

During these years the Log Book records many outside visits paid by the children to various works, especially by the older children who would be leaving, to the Museum, and to suitable film shows, as for example the showing of the film Henry the V

In 1947 the nursery was recognised as suitable for use as a training centre for students for the National Examination Board certificate. It has been training students ever since. They do part of their practical work with us, and their course training at the Nursery Training Centre all under the supervision of the Supervisor for Nursery Schools of the Authority.

In October, 1948, an official of the North Region of the B.B.C. came into school to listen to the broadcast lesson on General Science and to get the children's reaction.

In April, 1952, the new Haywood Schools at Lever Edge were opened, and St Marks lost all the senior children over eleven and became a Primary Mixed and Infants School.

At the end of the Summer term, 1958, Mr Brickles retired from the Headmastership of the school, and the present Headmaster took over his duties.

At the beginning of the Autumn term this year, 1961, we shall welcome to our staff an American teacher, Miss L. Sodergren, from Minneapolis. who is exchanging teaching posts with one of our present staff, Miss M. Crawshaw.

So for a hundred years St Marks School has taught and looked after the well being of the children from the streets, houses and families of the surrounding neighbourhood. It was founded as a Church School and is so still. The whole of it's work during these hundred years has been based soundly upon Christian faith, worship and ideals. The Church, the School and the Home have been working together for the well being of the children. Quite a number of the present scholars are the children and grandchildren of former scholars. We are, as it were, of one family, and God has wonderfully blessed the work of these hundred years. The School looks forward with confidence to the future. The ideals that it stands for are renewed and strengthened in the knowledge that the work of the past has been well done. The labourers, i.e., teachers, scholars, and supporting Church Members have been many over the years. Their work has been accepted; may ours of the present and those of the future come to be so, too.

NOTES

1.- Numbers in the school

The average number on roll:-

1864 - Boys 127, Girls 100, Infants 122 ... Total 349

1874 - Boys 191, Girls 148, Infants 162 ... Total 501

1884 - Boys 270, Girls 281, Infants 150 ... Total 701

1894 - Mixed Department 505, Infants 167 ... Total 672

1902 - Mixed Department 548, Infants 265 ... Total 813

1914 - Mixed Department 482, Infants 181 ... Total 663

1924 - Mixed Department 300, Infants 100 ... Total 400

1934 - Mixed Department 228, Infants 121 ... Total 349

1944 - Mixed and Infants 303.

1954 - Junior Mixed and Infants 251.

1960 - Junior Mixed and Infants 199.

A parchment sheet found when alterations were done in 1927 shows that in April, 1887, in the Boys School the headmaster and five assistants taught 303 scholars; in the Girls School the headmistress, three assistant teachers and four pupil teachers taught 378, and in the Infants School the headmistress and two ex-pupil teachers taught 145 scholars. The [parchment also shows that in the Sunday School there were 71 teachers and 1,329 scholars on the books.

In 1909 the accommodation figures of elementary school was recalculated on a basis of 10 square feet of floor space for each older pupil and 9 square feet for each infant. St Marks was reduced from 1,019 to 803.

2. - Teachers

Pupil Teachers. As stated, these were children were from the school or from others, starting at the age of 13. Their engagements are noted in the front of the reports for each year; e.g., 1872: "The Department agrees to the engagement of each of the following scholars, John Fell, lilly Catterall, Dorothy Thompson and Evelyn Wilson, as a pupil teacher in fulfillment of Article 32c of the Code."

They received instruction from the master in various subjects before school in order to carry on their own education, and they were inspected in them by the inspector each year. The results were given in the report, e.g., 1876: "L. Catterall and D. Thompson, Grammar; E. Wilson, Grammar, Composition and History."

At the end of their apprenticeship they sat the Queen's Scholarship. So in 1878 we read the following in the report:-

"I am to state that W. Hardie, having been placed in the first class in the examination for the Queen's Scholarship, is considered to have passed well the examination required by Article 70/a, and is therefore qualified to bring a grant at the rate of 60/- under Article 19/c to the school for the part of the year during which he served there. J. Gregory has passed fairly. As the medical certificate required by the first schedule to the Code is not furnished on behalf of J.G. Thompson, my Lords regret that they are unable to sanction her admission to the office of Pupil Teacher."

Balance Sheet of the running of the school, 1899

INCOME

Balance from 1898
£16
4
4
Annual Grant from Education Dept
724
7
6
Fee Grant from Education Dept
357
7
6
Aid Grant from Education Dept
150
0
0
Voluntary Contributions: Mather Charity
7
10
0

Church Collections

170
0
0

School Pence

27
13
2
Grant from Dept. Science and Art
26
6
0
Sale of Needlework  
12
8
Other Income
19
5
7

Debit Balance

91
10
3
 
£1,590
17
0

EXPENDITURE

Head Teacher Salary:
Mixed £249/15/-, Infants £100

£349
15
5
Assistant Teachers
764
2
4
Additional Teacher, Article 68
38
6
8
Pupil Teachers
37
15
11
Candidate on Probation
12
10
0

Temporary Monitor

5
0
0

Other Teacher

6
0
4
Books, Stationary
89
17
2
Apparatus and Furniture 51
1
3
Heating and Cleaning and Lighting
103
18
11

Repairs to Building

107
16
10
Rates, etc.
9
6
8
Small Expenses
15
5
6
 
£1,590
17
0

The Teachers and classes that year were as follows:-

Mixed Dept.

Accommodation 732. Average Attendance 560.
Number on Books 575.

Headmaster ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... £249 a year

Standard

1. -

120 Children
Two Ex Pupil Tr. Training at £54 a years each
£108
2. -
107 Children
One Certified Tr. and one 4th year Pupil Tr. at £60 and £20
£80
3. -
93 Children
Two Certified Assistants at £70 and £55
£125
4. -
113 Children
One Certified Tr. and one Ex Pupil Tr. at £70 and £50
£120
5. -
111 Children
One Certified Tr. at £85 and a 3rd year Pupil Tr at £17 1/2.
£102 1/2

6 and 7.

119 Children
Certified Teacher
£100

 

663 Children
£884 1/2

Infants School.

Accommodation 286. Average Attendance 196.
Number on Books 272.

Headmistress ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... £100 a year

Class

1. -

44 Children
One Ex Pupil Teacher
£54
2. -
46 Children
One Ex Pupil Teacher
£50
3. -
60 Children
One Ex Pupil Tr. at £48 and one 1st year Pupil Tr. at £15
£63
4. -
51 Children
One Teacher under Article 68 of the Code
£40
201 Children
£307

Any person could be employed as a teacher under Article 68 of the Code if she had been Vaccinated.

3. - Some quotations from the Infants School Log Book.

March 21st, 1864: "Pupil teachers sent after absentees."

July 10th, 1867: "A Gentleman walks into school and requests to see the working of it, and then coolly marches out without saying who he was or what he came for."

December 14th, 1867: "Alice Booths gallery have pictures shown to them." (Most schools those days had a gallery, that is part of the schoolroom that went up in steps. The children were put in the gallery for oral lessons, very often because there was not enough desks. One class would have written work at the desks whilst the other would have an oral lesson on the gallery, then they would change over).

January 13th, 1868: "Day very wet. Children tiresome." (This applies quite often today).

July 3rd: "Alice Booth has her class in good order, and shows great aptitude and willingness for her work."

November 2nd: "M. Shippobottom leaves to go to Emmanuel; her place is taken by a monitor." Later on the 6th: "Emily Barlow manages the little ones very fairly, and is engaged as a paid monitor."

October 13th, 1869: "A. Booth gave a lesson on the Camel, but did not interest the children." November 12th: "M. Gorton has been absent all week; her sister has been in her place, but is not able to keep order."

September 6th, 1895: "Rev. Canon Doman visited the school to pay the teachers salaries."

September 14th, 1895: "I called at Miss D's house in Farnworth and found she was married, and she informed me that she was not coming any more. She has been away all week."

END

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